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Nobel Prize for Chemistry

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Nobel Prize for Chemistry

Chemistry is one of the five prize areas mentioned in Alfred Nobel’s will. The will was, however, partly incomplete. Nobel simply stated that prizes be given to those who, during the preceding year, “shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind” and that one part be given to the person who “shall have made the most important chemical discovery or improvement.”

Nobel Prize Chemistry Laureates

Nobel Prize Chemistry Laureates

1901 : Jacobus Henricus van ‘t Hoff ( Netherlands, 1852 – 08 – 30 – 1911 – 03 – 01 ) Discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and of the osmotic pressure in solutions.

1902 : Emil H.Fischer ( Germany, 1852 – 10 – 09 – 1919 – 07 – 15 ) Synthetic studies in the area of sugar and purine groups.

1903 : Svante A. Arrhenius ( Sweden, 1859 – 02 – 19 – 1927 – 10 – 02 ) Theory of electrolytic dissociation.

1904 : Sir William Ramsay ( United Kingdom, 1852 – 10 – 02 – 1916 – 07 – 23 ) Discovery of the indifferent gaseous elements in air ( noble gases ).

1905 : Adolf von Baeyer ( Germany, 1835 – 10 – 31 – 1917 – 08 – 20 ) Organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds.

1906 : Henri Moissan ( France, 1852 – 09 – 28 – 1907 – 02 – 20 ) Investigation and isolation of the element fluorine.General Studies Question Bank CD

1907 : Eduard Buchner ( Germany, 1860 – 05 – 20 – 1917 – 08 – 13 ) Biochemical studies, discovery of fermentation without cells.

1908 : Sir Ernest Rutherford ( United Kingdom, 1871 – 08 – 30 – 1937 – 10 – 19 ) Decay of the elements, chemistry of radioactive substances.

1909 : Wilhelm Ostwald ( Germany, 1853 – 09 – 02 – 1932 – 04 – 04 ) Catalysis, chemical equilibria and reaction rates.

1910 : Otto Wallach ( Germany, 1847 – 03 – 27 – 1931 – 02 – 26 ) Alicyclic compounds.

1911 : Marie Curie ( France, Poland, 1867 – 11 – 07 – 1934 – 07 – 04 ) Discovery of radium and polonium.

1912 : Victor Grignard ( France, 1871 – 05 – 16 – 1935 – 12 – 13 ) Grignard’s reagent Paul Sabatier ( France, 1854 – 1 1 – 05 – 1941 – 08 – 14 ) Hydrogenation of organic compounds in the presence of finely divided metals.

1913 : Alfred Werner ( Switzerland, 1866 – 12 – 12 – 1919 – 11 – 15 ) Bonding relations of atoms in molecules ( inorganic chemistry ).

1914 : Theodore W. Richards ( USA, 1868 – 01 – 31 – 1928 – 04 – 02 ) Determination of atomic weights.

1915 : Richard Willstätter ( Germany, 1872 – 08 – 13 – 1942 – 08 – 03 ) Investigation of plant pigments, particularly of chlorophyll.

1920 : Walther H. Nernst ( Germany, 1864 – 06 – 25 – 1941 – 11 – 18 ) Studies on thermodynamics.

1921 : Frederick Soddy ( United Kingdom, 1877 – 09 – 02 – 1956 – 09 – 22 ) Chemistry of radioactive substances, occurrence and nature of the isotopes.

1922 : Francis W. Aston ( United Kingdom, 1877 – 09 – 01 – 1945 – 11 – 20 ) Discovery of a large number of isotopes, mass spectrograph.

1923 : Fritz Pregl ( Austria, 1869 – 09 – 03 – 1930 – 12 – 13 ) Microanalysis of organic compounds.

1925 : Richard A. Zsigmondy ( Germany, Austria, 1865 – 04 – 01 – 1929 – 09 – 29 ) Colloid chemistry ( ultramicroscope ).

1926 : Theodor Svedberg ( Sweden, 1884 – 08 – 30 – 1971 – 02 – 26 ) Disperse systems ( ultracentrifuge ).

1927 : Heinrich O. Wieland ( Germany, 1877 – 06 – 04 – 1957 – 08 – 05 ) Constitution of bile acids.

1928 : Adolf Windaus ( Germany, 1876 – 12 – 25 – 1959 – 06 – 09 ) Study of sterols and their relation with vitamins ( vitamin D ).

1929 : Hans von Euler – Chelpin ( Sweden, Germany, 1873 – 02 – 15 – 1964 – 11 – 06 ) Arthur Harden ( United Kingdom, 1861 – 10 – 12 – 1940 – 06 – 17 ) Studies on fermentation of sugars and enzymes.

1930 : Hans Fischer ( Germany, 1881 – 07 – 27 – 1945 – 03 – 31 ) Studies on blood and plant pigments, synthesis of hemin.

1931 : Friedrich Bergius ( Germany, 1884 – 10 – 11 – 1949 – 03 – 30 ) Carl Bosch ( Germany, 1874 – 08 – 27 – 1940 – 04 – 26 ) Development of chemical high – pressure processes.

1932 : Irving Langmuir ( USA, 1881 – 01 – 31 – 1957 – 08 – 16 ) Surface chemistry.

1934 : Harold C. Urey ( USA, 1893 – 04 – 29 – 1981 – 01 – 06 ) Discovery of heavy hydrogen ( deuterium ).

1935 : Frédéric Joliot ( France, 1900 – 03 – 19 – 1958 – 08 – 14 ) Irène Joliot – Curie ( France, 1897 – 09 – 12 – 1956 – 03 – 17 ) Syntheses of new radioactive elements ( artificial radioactivity ).

1936 : Peter J. W. Debye ( Germany, Netherlands, 1884 – 03 – 24 – 1966 – 11 – 02 ) Studies on dipole moments and the diffraction of X rays and electron beams by gases.

1937 : Sir Walter N. Haworth ( United Kingdom, 1883 – 03 – 19 – 1950 – 03 – 19 ) Studies on carbohydrates and vitamin C Paul Karrer ( Switzerland, 1889 – 04 – 21 – 1971 – 06 – 18 ) Studies on carotenoids and flavins and vitamins A and B2.

1938 : Richard Kuhn ( Germany, 1900 – 12 – 03 – 1967 – 07 – 31 ) Studies on carotenoids and vitamins.

1939 : Adolf F. J. Butenandt ( Germany, 1903 – 03 – 24 – 1995 – 01 – 18 ) Studies on sexual hormones Leopold Ruzicka ( Switzerland, 1887 – 09 – 13 – 1976 – 09 – 26 ) Studies on polymethylenes and higher terpenes.

1943 : George de Hevesy ( Hungary, 1885 – 08 – 01 – 1966 – 07 – 05 ) Application of isotopes as indicators in the investigation chemical processes.

1944 : Otto Hahn ( Germany, 1879 – 03 – 08 – 1968 – 07 – 28 ) Discovery of the nuclear fission of atoms.

1945 : Artturi I. Virtanen ( Finland, 1895 – 01 – 15 – 1973 – 11 – 11 ) Discoveries in the area of agricultural and food chemistry, method of preservation of fodder.

1946 : John H. Northrop ( USA, 1891 – 07 – 05 – 1987 – 05 – 27 ) Wendell M. Stanley ( USA, 1904 – 08 – 16 – 1971 – 06 – 15 ) Preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in pure form James B. Sumner ( USA, 1887 – 11 – 19 – 1955 – 08 – 12 ) Crystallizability of enzymes.

1947 : Sir Robert Robinson ( United Kingdom, 1886 – 09 – 13 – 1975 – 02 – 08 ) Studies on alkaloids.General Studies Question Bank CD

1948 : Arne W. K. Tiselius ( Sweden, 1902 – 08 – 10 – 1971 – 10 – 29 ) Analysis by means of electrophoresis and adsorption, discoveries about serum proteins.

1949 : William F. Giauque ( USA, 1895 – 05 – 12 – 1982 – 03 – 28 ) Contributions to chemical thermodynamics, properties at extremely low temperatures ( adiabatic demagnetization ).

1950 : Kurt Alder ( Germany, 1902 – 07 – 10 – 1958 – 06 – 20 ) Otto P. H. Diels ( Germany, 1876 – 01 – 23 – 1954 – 03 – 07 ) Development of the diene synthesis.

1951 : Edwin M. McMillan ( USA, *1907 – 09 – 18 ) Glenn Th. Seaborg ( USA, 1912 – 04 – 19 – 1999 – 02 – 25 ) Discoveries in the chemistry of transuranium elements.

1952 : Archer J. P. Martin ( United Kingdom, *1910 – 03 – 01 ) Richard L. M. Synge ( United Kingdom, 1914 – 10 – 28 – 1994 – 08 – 18 ) Invention of distribution chromatography.

1953 : Hermann Staudinger ( Germany, 1881 – 03 – 23 – 1965 – 09 – 08 ) Discoveries in the area of macromolecular chemistry.

1954 : Linus Carl Pauling ( USA, 1901 – 02 – 28 – 1994 – 08 – 19 ) Studies on the nature of the chemical bond ( molecular structure of proteins ).

1955 : Vincent du Vigneaud ( USA, 1901 – 05 – 18 – 1978 – 12 – 11 ) Synthesis of a polypeptide hormone.

1956 : Sir Cyril N. Hinshelwood ( United Kingdom, 1897 – 06 – 19 – 1967 – 10 – 09 ) Nikolai N. Semjonow ( Soviet Union, 1896 – 04 – 15 – 1986 – 09 – 25 ) Mechanisms of chemical reactions.

1957 : Sir Alexander R. Todd ( United Kingdom, *1907 – 07 – 02 ) Studies on nucleotides and their coenzymes.

1958 : Frederick Sanger ( United Kingdom, *1918 – 08 – 13 ) Structure of proteins, especially of insulin.

1959 : Jaroslav Heyrovský ( Czechoslovakia, 1890 – 12 – 20 – 1967 – 03 – 27 ) Polarography.

1960 : Willard F. Libby ( USA, 1908 – 12 – 17 – 1980 – 09 – 08 ) Application of carbon 14 for age determinations ( radiocarbon dating ).

1961 : Melvin Calvin ( USA, *1911 – 04 – 07 ) Studies on the assimilation of carbonic acid by plants ( photosynthesis ).

1962 : John Cowdery Kendrew ( United Kingdom, *1917 – 03 – 24 ) Max Ferdinand Perutz ( United Kingdom, Austria, *1914 – 05 – 19 ) Studies on the structures of globulin proteins.

1963 : Giulio Natta ( Italy, 1903 – 02 – 26 – 1979 – 05 – 02 ) Karl Ziegler ( Germany, 1898 – 11 – 26 – 1973 – 08 – 11 ) Chemistry and technology of high polymers.

1964 : Dorothy Crowfoot – Hodgkin ( United Kingdom, *1910 – 05 – 12 ) Structure determination of biologically important substances by means of X rays.

1965 : Robert Burns Woodward ( USA, 1917 – 04 – 10 – 1979 – 07 – 08 ) Syntheses of natural products.

1966 : Robert S. Mulliken ( USA, 1896 – 06 – 07 – 1986 – 10 – 31 ) Studies on chemical bonds and the electron structure of molecules by means of the orbital method.

1967 : Manfred Eigen ( Germany, *1927 – 05 – 09 ) George Porter ( United Kingdom, *1920 – 12 – 06 ) Ronald G. W. Norrish ( United Kingdom, 1897 – 11 – 09 – 1978 – 06 – 07 ) Investigations of extremely fast chemical reactions.

1968 : Lars Onsager ( USA, Norway, 1903 – 11 – 27 – 1976 – 10 – 05 ) Studies on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes.

1969 : Odd Hassel ( Norway, 1897 – 05 – 17 – 1981 – 05 – 13 ) Derek H. Barton ( United Kingdom, *1918 – 09 – 08 ) Development of the concept of conformation.

1970 : Luis F. Leloir ( Argentina, *1906 – 09 – 06 ) Discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates.

1971 : Gerhard Herzberg ( Canada, 1904 – 12 – 25 – 1999 – 03 – 03 ) Electron structure and geometry of molecules, particularly of free radicals ( molecular spectroscopy ).

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1972 : Christian B. Anfinsen ( USA, *1916 – 03 – 26 ) Studies on ribonuclease Stanford Moore ( USA, 1913 – 09 – 04 – 1982 – 08 – 23 ) William H. Stein ( USA, 1911 – 06 – 25 – 1980 – 02 – 02 ) Studies on the active center of ribonuclease.

1973 : Ernst Otto Fischer ( Germany, *1918 – 11 – 10 ) Geoffrey Wilkinson ( United Kingdom, 1921 – 07 – 14 – 1996 – 09 – 26 ) Chemistry of metal – organic sandwich compounds.

1974 : Paul J. Flory ( USA, 1910 – 06 – 19 – 1985 – 09 – 09 ) Physical chemistry of macromolecules.

1975 : John W. Cornforth ( United Kingdom, *1917 – 09 – 07 ) Stereochemistry of enzyme catalysis reactions Vladimir Prelog ( Switzerland, Yugoslavia, 1906 – 07 – 23 – 1998 – 01 – 07 ) Studies on the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions.

1976 : William N. Lipscomb ( USA, *1919 – 12 – 09 ) Structure of boranes.

1977 : Ilya Prigogine ( Belgium, *1917 – 01 – 25 ) Contributions to the thermodynamics of irreversible processes, particularly to the theory of dissipative structures.

1978 : Peter D. Mitchell ( United Kingdom, *1920 – 09 – 29 ) Studies of biological energy transfer, development of the chemiosmotic theory.

1979: Georg Wittig ( Germany, 1897 – 06 – 16 – 1987 – 08 – 26 ) Herbert C. Brown ( USA, *1912 – 05 – 22 ) Development of ( organic ) boron and phosphorous compounds.

1980 : Paul Berg ( USA, *1926 – 06 – 30 ) Studies on the biochemistry of nucleic acids, particularly hybrid DNA ( technology of gene surgery ) Walter Gilbert ( USA, *1932 – 03 – 21 ) Frederick Sanger ( United Kingdom, 1918 – 08 – 13 ) Determination of base sequences in nucleic acids.

1981 : Kenichi Fukui ( Japan, *1918 – 10 – 04 ) Roald Hoffmann ( USA, *1937 – 07 – 18 ) Theories on the progress of chemical reactions ( frontier orbital theory ).

1982 : Aaron Klug ( United Kingdom, *1926 – 08 – 11 ) Development of crystallographic methods for the elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid protein complexes.General Studies Question Bank CD

1983 : Henry Taube ( Canada, *1915 – 11 – 30 ) Reaction mechanisms of electron transfer, especially with metal complexes.

1984 : Robert Bruce Merrifield ( USA, *1921 – 07 – 15 ) Method for the preparation of peptides and proteins.

1985 : Herbert A. Hauptman ( USA, 1917 – 02 – 14 ) Jerome Karle ( USA, 1918 – 06 – 18 ) Development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures.

1986 : John C. Polanyi ( Canada, *1929 – 01 – 23 ) Dudley R. Herschbach ( USA, *1932 – 06 – 18 ) Yuan Tseh Lee ( USA, *1936 – 11 – 29 ) Dynamics of chemical elementary processes.

1987 : Donald J. Cram ( USA, *1919 – 04 – 22 ) Charles J. Pedersen ( USA, 1904 – 10 – 03 – 1989 – 10 – 26 ) Jean – Marie Lehn ( France, *1939 – 09 – 30 ) Development of molecules with structurally specific interaction of high selectivity.

1988 : Johann Deisenhofer ( Germany, *1943 – 09 – 30 ) Robert Huber ( Germany, *1937 – 02 – 20 ) Hartmut Michel ( Germany, *1948 – 07 – 18 ) Determination of the three – dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction center.

1989 : Sidney Altman ( Canada, *1939 – 05 – 08 ) Thomas Robert Cech ( USA, *1947 – 12 – 08 ) Discovery of the catalytic properties of ribonucleic acid ( RNA ).

1990 : Elias James Corey ( USA, *1928 – 07 – 12 ) Development of novel methods for the synthesis of complex natural compounds ( retrosynthetic analysis ).

1991 : Richard Robert Ernst ( Switzerland, *1933 – 08 – 14 ) Development of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( NMR ).

1992 : Rudolph A. Marcus ( USA, *1923 ) Theories of electron transfer.

1993 : Kary Banks Mullis ( USA, *1944 ) Invention of the polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ) Michael Smith ( Canada, *1932 ) Development of site specific mutagenesis.

1994 : George A. Olah ( USA, *1927 ) Carbocations.

1995 : Paul Crutzen ( Netherlands, *1933 ) Mario Molina ( Mexico, *1943 ) Frank Sherwood Rowland ( USA, *1927 ) for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone.

1996 : Robert F. Curl, Jr. ( USA, *1933 ) Sir Harold W. Kroto ( United Kingdom, *1939 ) Richard E. Smalley ( USA, *1943 ) for their discovery of fullerenes.

1997 : Paul D. Boyer ( USA, *1918 ) John E. Walker ( United Kingdom, *1941 ) for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate ( ATP ) Jens C. Skou ( Denmark, *1918 ) for the first discovery of an ion – transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ – ATPase.

1998 : Walter Kohn ( USA, *1923 ) John A. Pople ( United Kingdom / USA, *1925 ) to Walter Kohn for his development of the density – functional theory and to John Pople for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry ( GAUSSIAN computer programs ).

1999 : Ahmed H. Zewail ( USA, Egypt, *1946 ) for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy.

2000 : Alan J. Heeger ( USA, *1936 ) Alan G. MacDiarmid ( USA, *1927 ) Hideki Shirakawa ( Japan, *1936 ) for the discovery and development of conductive polymers.

2001 : William S. Knowles ( United States ) Ryōji Noyori ( Japan ) for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions.

K. Barry Sharpless ( United States ) for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions.

2002 : John B. Fenn ( United States ), Koichi Tanaka ( Japan ) for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules.

Kurt Wüthrich ( Switzerland ) for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution.

2003 : Peter Agre ( United States ) for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes for the discovery of water channels.

Roderick MacKinnon ( United States ) for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels.

2004 : Aaron Ciechanover ( Israel ), Avram Hershko ( Israel ), Irwin Rose ( United States ) for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation.

2005 : Yves Chauvin ( France ), Robert H. Grubbs ( United States ), Richard R. Schrock ( United States ) for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation.

2006 : Roger D. Kornberg ( United States ) for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription.

2007 : Gerhard Ertl ( Germany ) for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces.

2008 : Osamu Shimomura ( Japan ), Martin Chalfie ( United States ), Roger Y. Tsien ( United States ) for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein.

2009 :  Venkatraman Ramakrishnan ( United States ), Thomas A. Steitz ( United States ), Ada E. Yonath ( Israel ) for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome.

2010 : Richard F. Heck ( United States ), Ei-ichi Negishi ( Japan ), kira Suzuki ( Japan ) for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis.

2011 : Dan Shechtman ( Israel ) for the discovery of quasicrystals.

2012 : Robert Lefkowitz ( United States ), Brian Kobilka ( United States ) for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors.

2013 : Martin Karplus ( United States ), Austria Michael Levitt ( United States, United Kingdom, Israel), Arieh Warshel ( United States, Israel ) for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems.

 

Nobel Prize Chemistry Article

Nobel Prize Chemistry Article

The Development Of Modern Chemistry by Bo G. Malmström How far has development in modern chemistry arrived at in the last 100 years

Hydrocarbons for the 21st Century – The work of the Loker Hydrocarbon Research Institute by George A. Olah Chemistry Laureate George Olah gives a glimpse of the work that was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1994.

The Role of Science and Technology in Future Design by Jerome Karle 1985 Chemistry Laureate Jerome Karle discusses the interaction of science and society.

The RNA World by Sidney Altman 1989 Chemistry Laureate Sidney Altman relates his involvement in the discovery of the catalytic properties of RNA.

On Being a Scientist A Personal View by John C. Polanyi What is the responsibility of scientists to society 1986 Chemistry Laureate John C. Polanyi shares his views.

Nobel Prize Educational

DNA – RNA – Protein : Know more about the physical carriers of inheritance and the building blocks and workers of our cells. You may choose the basic level or proceed directly to more advanced information.

The Virtual Biochemistry Lab : Finding and characterizing proteins is essential in helping scientists understand what life is. Enter our biochemistry lab and try some experiments.

Nobel Posters : Illustrated presentations of Nobel Prizes in Chemistry.

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Nobel Prize Chemistry Nomination

Nobel Prize Chemistry Nomination

1. Each year the respective committees send individual invitations to thousands of scientists, members of academies and university professors in numerous countries, asking them to nominate candidates for the Nobel Prizes for the coming year. Those who are competent to submit nominations are chosen in such a way that as many countries and universities as possible will be represented.

2. These prize nominations must reach the respective Nobel Committees of the Prize Awarding Institutions before February 1 of the year for which the nomination is being made.

3. The nominations received by each committee are then evaluated with the help of specially appointed experts. When the committees have made their selection among the nominated candidates and have presented their recommendations to the Prize Awarding Institutions, a vote is taken for the final choice of Laureates.

4. The choice of the year’s Laureates is announced immediately after the vote in October each year.

5. The prizes are awarded at the Prize Award Ceremony at the Concert Hall in Stockholm, Sweden, on December 10 ( the Anniversary of Alfred Nobel’s death ). The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded on the same day at the City Hall in Oslo, Norway.

The procedure to nominate candidates for the Nobel Prizes varies somewhat among the Prize Awarding Institutions. Excerpts from the Special Regulations on the awarding of Nobel Prizes : ( The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences ) Invitations to nominate are sent to :

  • Swedish and foreign members of the Academy of Sciences
  • Members of the Nobel Committees for Physics and Chemistry
  • Scientists who have been awarded the Prize by the Academy of Sciences
  • Permanent and assistant professors in the sciences of Physics and Chemistry at the universities and institutes of technology of Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Norway, and Karolinska Institute
  • Holders of corresponding chairs in at least six universities or university colleges selected by the Academy of Sciences with a view to ensuring the appropriate distribution over the different countries and their seats of learnings
  • Other scientists from whom the Academy may see fit to invite proposals.

Decisions as to the selection of the teachers and scientists referred shall be taken each year before the end of the month of September.

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