Indian Freedom Fighter Chakravarti Rajagopalachari Biography
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari was the famous political leader and social reformer.
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari was born on 10th December 1878 in Thorapalli village of Salem District, Tamilnadu. He was popularly known as C.R. or `Rajaji`.
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari parents were Venkataraya Iyengar and Singaramma. He received his primary education in Honsur. After that he moved to Karnataka and graduated from Central College of Bangalore. In these days he displayed his ability in politics.
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari was given the title Gandhi of South India. He obtained a degree in law and started working as an advocate. He was very interested in literature. Later he established himself as an eminent writer in Tamil and English.
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari served as the Chairman of Municipal Council of Salem. During this time he launched a campaign against caste system, and drinking of alcohol.
Afterwards he entered into national politics. In 1906 he joined the Surat session of the Indian national Congress. Chakravarti Rajagopalachari was initially the follower of extremist Lokamanya Tilak.
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari was the member of the Congress Working Committee from 1919 to 1942. In 1921 he became the General Secretary of the Indian national Congress. At that time Chakravarti Rajagopalachari established an intimate relationship with Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallabhbhai Patel, Maulana Azad, Anugrah Narayan Sinha, Rajendra Prasad.
Within a short time he became one of the top leaders of the party. In his autobiography Nehru described about Rajaji, “brilliant intellect, selfless character, and penetrating powers of analysis have been a tremendous asset to our cause”.
Nehru also said, “Rajaji represents fundamentally the highest type of mind in India.”
In 1932 Chakravarti Rajagopalachari was the acting President of Congress Party and played a crucial role in the Poona Pact with Ambedkar. During the time of provincial election he showed his organizational skill which led congress to get the majority.
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari actively took part in the Dandi March and inspired the `Satyagrahis`. He was imprisoned by the British Goverment as `Satyagrahi` for five times. During this time he wrote several books He was also the editor of `Young India` during Gandhiji`s incarceration.
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari was appointed as the provincial leader of Madras after his jail-term. After Gandhi-Irwin pact and Government of India Act in the year 1935, he served as the premier of Madras Presidency.
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari also contributed a lot for social reformation. He brought Agriculturists` Debt Relief Act to save the poor debt ridden farmer from the grasp of landlord .For the first time the idea of sales tax was introduced by Rajaji.
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari was selected as the member of the Governor`s Council in 1946.In the interim Government he served as the minister of Education and Arts .
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari also held the post of Industries and Supply minister and Finance ministerAfter independence he was appointed as the Governor-General of India and served in this post for next three years.
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari served as the Home minister of Nehru`s Cabinet. He became the chief minister of Madras in 1952. For the ideological differences with the congress men Chakravarti Rajagopalachari formed the `Swatantra` Party.
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari protested against the license-permit Raj. He also criticized the formation of linguistic states and wanted to retain English language as Official language of India.
Apart from political career Chakravarti Rajagopalachari was also a well-known writer.He translated the two great epics Ramayana and Mahabharata from Sanskrit to Tamil; and later into English. Chakravarti Rajagopalachari also translated the Upanishada, Bhaja and The Tirukkural-an ancient piece of Tamil literature into English.
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari interpreted Hinduism, Bhagavad-Gita and Indian Culture in his famous book Hinduism – Doctrine and Way of Life. He also penned some poems, novels and short stories. He was also a great humanist.
Gandhiji praised him as, “the keeper of my conscience”. Chakravarti Rajagopalachari was awarded the Bharat Ratna by Indian Government.He breathed his last in 1972 after a short illness.