GK 2015 Question Bank CD -

Aristotle Biography

The Greek philosopher and scientist Aristotle created the scientific method, the process used for scientific investigation. His influence served as the basis for much of the science and philosophy of Hellenistic ( Ancient Greek ) and Roman times, and even affected science and philosophy thousands of years later.

Early life

Aristotle was born in the small Greek town of Stagiros ( later Stagira ) in the northern Greek district of Chalcidice. His father, Nicomachus, was a physician who had important social connections. Aristotle’s interest in science was surely inspired by his father’s work, although Aristotle did not display a particularly keen interest in medicine. The events of his early life are not clear. It is possible that his father served at the Macedonian court ( the political leaders of Macedonia, an ancient empire ) as physician to Amyntas II ( died c. 370 B.C.E. ) and that Aristotle spent part of his youth there.



General Studies Question Bank CD

At the age of seventeen Aristotle went to Athens, Greece, and joined Plato’s ( c. 428–c. 348 B.C.E. ) circle at the Academy, a school for philosophers. There he remained for twenty years. Although his respect and admiration for Plato was always great, differences developed which ultimately caused a break in their relationship. Upon Plato’s death Aristotle left for Assos in Mysia ( in Asia Minor, today known as Turkey ), where he and Xenocrates ( c. 396–c. 314 B.C.E. ) joined a small circle of Platonists ( followers of Plato ) who had already settled there under Hermias, the ruler of Atarneus. Aristotle married the niece of Hermias, a woman named Pythias, who was killed by the Persians some time thereafter.

In 342 B.C.E. Aristotle made his way to the court of Philip of Macedon ( c. 382–c. 336 B.C.E. ). There Aristotle became tutor to Alexander ( c. 356–c. 323 B.C.E. ), who would become master of the whole Persian Empire as Alexander the Great. Little information remains regarding the specific contents of Alexander’s education at the hands of Aristotle, but it would be interesting to know what political advice Aristotle gave to the young Alexander. The only indication of such advice is found in the fragment of a letter in which the philosopher tells Alexander that he ought to be the leader of the Greeks but the master of the barbarians ( foreigners ).

Peripatetic School

Aristotle returned to Athens around 335 B.C.E. Under the protection of Antipater ( c. 397–c. 319 B.C.E. ), Alexander’s representative in Athens, Aristotle established a philosophical school of his own, the Lyceum, located near a shrine of Apollo Lyceus. Also known as the Peripatetic School, the school took its name from its colonnaded walk ( a walk with a series of columns on either side ). The lectures were divided into morning and afternoon sessions. The more difficult ones were given in the morning, and the easier and more popular ones were given in the afternoon. Aristotle himself led the school until the death of Alexander in 323 B.C.E. , when he left Athens, fearing for his safety because of his close association with the Macedonians. He went to Chalcis, Greece, where he died the following year of intestinal problems. His will, preserved in the writings of Diogenes Laertius ( third century C.E. ), provided for his daughter, Pythias, and his son, Nicomachus, as well as for his slaves.

His writings

Aristotle produced a large number of writings, but few have survived. His earliest writings, consisting for the most part of dialogues ( writings in the form of conversation ), were produced under the influence of Plato and the Academy. Most of these are lost, although the titles are known from the writings of Diogenes Laertius and from others. Among these important works are Rhetoric, Eudemus ( On the Soul ), On Philosophy, Alexander, Sophistes, On Justice, Wealth, On Prayer, and On Education. They were a wide variety of works written for the public, and they dealt with popular philosophical themes. The dialogues of Plato were undoubtedly the inspiration for some of them, although the fall out between Plato and Aristotle reveals itself to a certain extent in these works, too.

A second group of writings is made up of collections of scientific and historical material, among the most important of which is the surviving fragment of the Constitution of the Athenians. This formed part of the large collection of Constitutions, which Aristotle and his students collected and studied for the purpose of analyzing various political theories. The discovery of the Constitution of the Athenians in Egypt in 1890 shed new light on the nature of the Athenian democracy ( a government of elected officials ) of Aristotle’s time. It also revealed the difference in quality between the historical and scientific works of Aristotle and those that followed.

Theophrastus ( c. 372–c. 287 B.C.E. ) had kept Aristotle’s manuscripts after the master’s death in 322 B.C.E. When Theophrastus died Aristotle’s works were hidden away and not brought to light again until the beginning of the first century B.C.E. They were then taken to Rome and edited by Andronicus ( first century B.C.E. ). The texts that survive today come from Andronicus’s revisions and probably do not represent works that Aristotle himself prepared for publication. From the time of his death until the rediscovery of these writings, Aristotle was best known for the works that today are known as the lost writings.
Philosophical and scientific systems


General Studies Question Bank CD

The writings that did survive, however, are sufficient to show the quality of Aristotle’s achievement. The Topics and the Analytics deal with logic ( the study of reasoning ) and dialectic ( a method of argument ) and reveal Aristotle’s contributions to the development of debate. His view of nature is set forth in the Physics and the Metaphysics, which mark the most serious difference between Aristotelianism and Platonism : that all investigation must begin with what the senses record and must move only from that point to thought. As a result of this process of intellectualizing, God, who for Plato represents beauty and goodness, is for Aristotle the highest form of being and is completely lacking in materiality. Aristotle’s God neither created nor controls the universe, although the universe is affected by this God. Man is the only creature capable of thought even remotely resembling that of God, so man’s highest goal is to reason abstractly, like God, and he is more truly human to the extent that he achieves that goal.

Aristotle’s work was often misunderstood in later times. The scientific and philosophical systems set forth in his writings are not conclusions that must be taken as the final answer, but rather experimental positions arrived at through careful observation and analysis. During the slow intellectual climate of the Roman Empire, which ruled over much of Europe for hundreds of years after Aristotle died, and the totally unscientific Christian Middle Ages ( 476–1453 ), Aristotle’s views on nature and science were taken as a complete system. As a result, his influence was enormous but not for any reason that would have pleased him.

Aristotle shares with his master, Plato, the role of stimulating human thought. Plato had a more direct influence on the development of that great spiritual movement in late antiquity ( years before the Middle Ages ), and Aristotle had a greater effect on science. Antiquity produced no greater minds than those of Plato and Aristotle. The intellectual history of the West would be extremely different without them.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

GK 2015 Question Bank CD -

Father of Biology – Scientist Aristotle

Scientist Aristotle (384 to 322 BC), Great thinker, Father of Biology born in 384 BC was recognized as an early Greek scientist-philosopher.
At the age of 17 he studied under Plato. Later Aristotle became a teacher to Alexander (who became Alexander the Great).

Scientist Aristotle developed a talent for keen observation on the structure of living beings. He was the first person to make dissections (i.e. cutting open) of animals.

H.G. Wells praised him as the first, natural historian.

Scientist Aristotle was perfect in biology but poor in physics; notwithstanding this, the influence of Aristotle’s thought reigned for 1,500 years.

Galileo Galilei (1564 to 1642) later disputed and discarded the till then highly-accepted Aristotelian theory of falling bodies, which argued that a two-pound weight will fall to the ground twice as fast as a one pound weight, based on his observation that a stone falls faster than a leaf (which is true, of course).

Galileo demonstrated in the presence of a huge gathering that both heavy and light objects of the same shape, say balls, took the same time to fall to the ground from the Leaning Tower of  Pisa – Paradox of Truth! Lo! Truth alone triumphs.

The public and even the Church criticized Galileo for challenging Aristotle’s theories.
General Studies Question Bank CD

It was proved that Aristotle was woefully wrong in physics, in the above context.
MBA Question Bank CD

Copernican System opposed Aristotle’s view that the Earth was a fixed object (see Nicolaus Copernicus).

Scientist Aristotle recognized the ladder of nature, the way in which living beings are classified, i.e.taxonomy.

According to Scientist Aristotle, the universe was made up of five elements, water, air, fire, earth and heavens (sky).

This coincides with the much more ancient Indian interpretation.

Scientist Aristotle’s writings include:

  1. Logic — a proper tool of investigation.
  2. Physics — scientific study of the properties of matter and energy, e.g. heat, light, sound, magnetism, gravity and the relationship between them.
  3. Metaphysics —branch of philosophy detailing with the nature of existence, truth and knowledge.
  4. Natural sciences: Life sciences, Botany and Zoology.
  5. Ethics, science that deals with morals in life, rules of conduct and behaviour.
  6. Rhetoric and poetics.

Scientist Aristotle mustered about 1000 volunteers to travel through Greece and Asia collecting specimens of sea and land life (creatures), dissecting them and reporting their findings.

Thus Scientist Aristotle was a great man of science.

He was A rising tot legend’ – Aris tot le.

Scientist Aristotle’s achievements were great, though some of them were clouded with error.

Pioneers in the systematic organised study of biology :General Studies Question Bank CD

  1. Aristotle (384 to 322 BC) Father of Biology
  2. Theophrastus (370 to 285 BC) Father of Botany
  3. Hippocrates (460 to 377 BC) Father of Medicine

Importance of Biology to Mankind

  1. Medicine :  Parasitology, Microbiology.
  2. Eugenics :  The science of improvement of human genetic stock.
  3. Agriculture including horticulture.
  4. Growth of industries, e.g. fisheries, silk manufacture.
  5. Pollution control, environmental science.
  6. Genetics, embryology.

Biology

Greek  bios  life   -logy  combining  form indicating science.

biology, the science of living things: the life sciences botany, anatomy and physiology, zoology, etc.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *